History of Nepal
The history of Nepal is believed to begin in the 7th century BC with the arrival of Kiratis from the east, considered to be the first inhabitants of Nepal, who also brought Buddhism to the country. Buddhism was replaced by Hinduism in the 3rd century, when the Licchavi kings from India defeated the Kiratis. Caste system was also introduced during this period. Nepal history is divided into three category- ancients Nepal (Licchhavi dynasty), Medival Nepal (Malla dynasty) and Shaha dynasty.
Around the turn of 7th century, the Thakuris took over the power from the Licchavis, making Amshu Varma, the first Thakurian king. The period that followed was often referred to as the Dark ages because of instability and invasion that surrounded much part of the reign.
The Malla dynasty began from 1200 and ended towards 1769, when they were dethroned by the Shah rulers, who ruled comfortably till 19th century. During the mid 1300s, Nepal began dividing into many small states. Prithvi Narayan Shah, the king of Gorkha is known as the unifier who conquered many independent hill states, even taking over three Malla kingdoms within the valley and was successful in extending the territory even further in the 18th century. In 1846, the Kot Massacre, orchestrated by Jung Bahadur Rana brought Ranas into power. The Ranas who ruled Nepal for 104 years are often criticized of leading Nepal into poverty. In 1950s, the Shah Kings who had virtually no power during the Rana rule came back into power. King Mahendra was succeeded by King Birendra in 1972, who in 1990 approved constitutional monarchy for the first time.
After the royal massacre in 2001, Gyanendra, brother of King Birendra was made the King. However, he was ousted by the peoples revolution in 2006. Nepal was declared a Federal Democratic Republic secular state in 2008. Nepal history is old and diverse.